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The mechanism of CD4 T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor.During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4 Immune activation, which is reflected by the increased activation state of immune cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, results from the activity of several HIV gene products and the immune response to ongoing HIV replication.Due to their nonspecific character, these symptoms are not often recognized as signs of HIV infection.Even cases that do get seen by a family doctor or a hospital are often misdiagnosed as one of the many common infectious diseases with overlapping symptoms.Another group consists of those who maintain a low or undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral treatment, known as "elite controllers" or "elite suppressors".They represent approximately 1 in 300 infected persons.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr EP) with a daily dose of the medications tenofovir, with or without emtricitabine, is effective in a number of groups including men who have sex with men, couples where one is HIV positive, and young heterosexuals in Africa. Learn about the latest media tools, develop strategic plans, and get feedback on your ideas! Revamp your digital reach by getting free, personalized coaching from our Virtual Office Hours! Sexual assault is also believed to carry an increased risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely worn, physical trauma to the vagina or rectum is likely, and there may be a greater risk of concurrent sexually transmitted infections.Blood-borne transmission can be through needle-sharing during intravenous drug use, needle stick injury, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood product, or medical injections with unsterilized equipment.
Because of its relatively poor capacity for transmission, HIV-2 is largely confined to West Africa.