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This is illustrated by comparing the chronology as given by two Egyptologists, the first writing in 1906, the second in 2000 (all dates in the table are BC).
The disparities between the two sets of dates result from additional discoveries and refined understanding of the still very incomplete source evidence.
ISO dates yyyy-mm-dd can be used for "technical" purposes.
The fraction form Also widely used: (d)d-Mmm[3 letters of month name with the notable exception of Nov for November, which would otherwise be Noiembrie]-yyyy and (d)d-XII-yyyy (month number as a Roman numeral with lines above AND below, slowly deprecating) other formats, including dd mmm(m) yyyy and yyyy-mm-dd, are common or prescribed—particularly in military, academic, scientific, computing, industrial, or governmental contexts.
Life in Cairo is much the same as it is in any other city of the world.
For the Old Kingdom, consensus fluctuates by as much as a few centuries, but for the Middle and New Kingdoms, it has been stable to within a few decades.
This was most pervasive before the mid 19th century, when Manetho's figures were recognized as conflicting with biblical chronology based on Old Testament references to Egypt (see Pharaohs in the Bible).
In the 20th century, such biblical bias has mostly been confined to alternative chronologies outside of scholarly mainstream.
A number of Old Kingdom inscriptions allude to a periodic census of cattle, which experts at first believed took place every second year; thus records of as many as 24 cattle censuses indicate Sneferu had reigned 48 years.
However, further research has shown that these censuses were sometimes taken in consecutive years, or after two or more years had passed.
Regnal periods have to be pieced together from inscriptions, which will often give a date in the form of the regnal year of the ruling pharaoh, yet only provides a minimum length of that reign and may or may not include any coregencies with a predecessor or successor.