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Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture (3500–2500 BC); this culture was active to the Khangai Mountains in Central Mongolia.
The wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC.
Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China.
In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared as a Soviet satellite state.
After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan.
In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population.
Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture is still integral. The non-religious population is the second largest group.
His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty.
While it does not share a border with Kazakhstan, Mongolia is separated from it by only 36.76 kilometres (22.84 mi).
At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 18th largest and the most sparsely populated fully sovereign country in the world, with a population of around 3 million people.
The population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, and as europoid in the west.
Tocharians (Yuezhi) and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age.
By the early 1900s, almost one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks.